Bristol Community College

Bristol Community College
http://bristolcc.edu/

MLA Style

Developed by the Modern Language Association, this style is most widely used for research papers in the humanities.

Each citation consists of two parts: the parenthetical reference, which provides brief identifying information within the text, and the works cited list, which provides full bibliographic information.

How to Format Parenthetical References

(For more detailed information see MLA Handbook sec. 6.1)

In MLA, in text citations are called parenthetical references. They use the author's last name followed by the page number referenced in the work. The reference is placed in parentheses usually at the end of the sentence before the period.

(Kurasawa 323).

Each source in the Works Cited list at the end of the paper or article corresponds to a parenthetical reference in the text.

If the author's name is mentioned in the narrative, only the page number need appear in the parentheses.

Kurasawa (323) found that ….

Group or corporate authors. Use full name of group or a shortened form.

(Modern Language Association 115)

(MLA 115)

Unknown Author. Use a few words of the title.

("Recent innovations" 231)

Two or three authors. Use the last names of each.

(AuthorA, AuthorB, and AuthorC 323)

More than three authors. Give all the authors' last names or just use the first and "et al" for the rest. In any case, use the same form as the entry in your Works Cited list.

(Bia, Pedreno, Small, Finch, Patterson 161)

(Bia et al. 161)

If the Works Cited list contains two or more authors with the same surname. In the parenthetical reference, include the first initial.

(A. DeCarrera 213)

If the initial is also the same, use the whole first name.

(Annette DeCarrera 213)

If the reference is to an exact quotation, the author and page number appear in parentheses after the quote.

It may be true that "the attitude of the observer is of primary importance" (Robertson 136).

For exact quotations from sources without page numbers, use paragraph numbers, if available. If the work does not have page numbers or paragraph numbers, include in the text the name of the person that begins the corresponding entry in the works cited list, instead of using a parenthetical reference. For more information see MLA Handbook sections 6.4.1 and 6.4.2.

(Smith para 17)

As Smith points out....

Citations taken from a secondary source should generally be avoided; consult the original work whenever possible. If only an indirect source is available, put the abbreviation qtd. in (quoted in) before the indirect source in the parenthetical reference and include the indirect source in the Works Cited. (MLA Style, sec. 6.4.7)

parenthetical reference

In a May 1800 letter to Watt, Creighton wrote, "The excellent Satanism reflects immortal honour on the Club" (qtd. in Hunt and Jacob 493).

works cited list

Hunt, Lynn, and Margaret Jacob. "The Affective Revolution in 1790s Britain." Eighteenth-Century Studies 34.4 (2001): 491-521.

How to Format Works Cited List

Books
(MLA Handbook, sec. 5.6)

Single author
Perle, George. Serial Composition and Atonality: an Introduction to the Music of Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern. 6th ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.
Multiple authors
Higonnet, Margaret R., and Joan Templeton, eds. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994.
Edited Book
Gibbons, Reginald, ed. The Poet's Work: 29 Masters of 20th Century Poetry on the Origins and Practice of their Art. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979.
Group or corporate author
World Bank. Transition, the first ten years : analysis and lessons for Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Washington: World Bank, 2002.
Chapter or essay in book
Calvino, Italo. "Cybernetics and Ghosts." The Uses of Literature: Essays. Trans. Patrick Creagh. San Diego: Harcourt, 1982. 3-27.
Article from a reference book
Loizou, Andros. "Theories of Justice: Rawls." Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics. Ed. Ruth Chadwick. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998.

Note: for standard, familiar reference works, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, do not list the full publishing information, just the year of publication; for multi-volume works, give number of volumes (x vols.) before place of publication.

Articles

(MLA Handbook, sec. 5.7 and 5.9)

Article in a journal (one author)
Wolff, Larry. "'The Boys are Pickpockets, and the Girl is a Prostitute': Gender and Juvenile Criminality in Early Victorian England from Oliver Twist to London Labour." New Literary History 27 (1996): 227-249.

Note: If each issue of the journal begins with page number 1, include the issue number. For example ...27.1 (1996): 25-47.

Article in a journal (multiple authors)
Millán-Zaibert, Elisabeth and Leo Zaibert. "El Análisis Filosófico." Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos 627 (2002): 29-35.
Article in a popular magazine
Lerner, Barbara. "America's Schools: Still Failing After All These Years." National Review 15 Sep. 1997: 42+.

Note: use the + sign if the pages are not consecutive; 42-44 would be the correct way if this article ran on consecutive pages; do not give the volume and issue number, even if they are available.

Article in a newspaper
Kennedy, Louise. "Same Old Song." Boston Globe 9 March 2003, late ed.: N1+.

Note: Different web browsers break the text in different places of a URL. The URL should begin on the same line as the rest of the citation information, with a break inserted after a slash, if needed.

Article from a full-text database
Andreatta, Filippo. "Italy at a Crossroads: The Foreign Policy of a Medium Power after the End of Bipolarity." Daedalus 130.2: 45- . Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group Databases. Williams College Library. 9 March 2003. <http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com>.
Article from an e-journal collection
Brooks, Gwendolyn. "Henry Dumas: Perceptiveness and Zeal." Black American Literature Forum 22 (1988): 177. JSTOR. 9 March 2003. <http://www.jstor.org/cgi-bin/jstor/gensearch>.
Article from a free web e-journal
Castle, Robert. "From Desperation to Salvation: Concealing and Revealing Nothing in History." Archipelago 6.2-3 (2003). 9 March 2003. <http://www.archipelago.org/vol6-3/castle.htm>.

Media
(MLA Handbook, sec. 5.8)

Music Score
Schoenberg, Arnold. A Survivor from Warsaw; for narrator, men's chorus, and orchestra. Op. 46. Long Island City: Bomart Music Publications, 1949

MLA Handbook recommends that works with no pagination be mentioned in running text rather than parenthetically: e.g., "In Schoenberg's A Survivor ..."

Sound Recording
Bernstein, Leonard. Candide: opera house version, 1982. Orch. New York City Opera Chorus and Orchestra. Perf. Erie Mills, Joyce Castle, Maris Clement, John Lankston, Jack Harrold, David Eisler, James Billings, Scott Reeve. Cond. John Mauceri. New York: New World Records, 1986.

If citing any other medium than compact disc, indicate the medium before the manufacturer's name; e.g., audiocassette, LP, etc.

Video Recording
Like Water for Chocolate [Como agua para chocolate]. Screenplay by Laura Esquivel. Dir. Alfonso Arau. Perf. Marco Leonardi, Lumi Cavazos, Regina Torne. 1992. DVD. Burbank, Calif.: Miramax Home Entertainment, 2000.
Television
"Frederick Douglass." Civil War Journal. Narr. Danny Glover. Dir. Craig Haffner. Arts and Entertainment Network. 6 April 1993.

Web/Online
(MLA Handbook, sec. 5.9)

Note: Different web browsers break the text in different places of a URL. The URL should begin on the same line as the rest of the citation information, with a break inserted after a slash, if needed.

Web page
Pilgrim, David. "The Brute Caricature." Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia. Nov. 2000. Ferris State University. 20 May 2003 <http://www.ferris.edu/news/jimcrow/brute/> .
Article from a free web e-journal
Castle, Robert. "From Desperation to Salvation: Concealing and Revealing Nothing in History." Archipelago 6.2-3 (2003). 9 March 2003. <http://www.archipelago.org/vol6-3/castle.htm>.
Article from a full-text database
Andreatta, Filippo. "Italy at a Crossroads: The Foreign Policy of a Medium Power after the End of Bipolarity." Daedalus 130.2: 45- . Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group Databases. Williams College Library. 9 March 2003. <http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com>.
Article from an e-journal collection
Brooks, Gwendolyn. "Henry Dumas: Perceptiveness and Zeal." Black American Literature Forum 22 (1988): 177. JSTOR. 9 March 2003. <http://www.jstor.org/cgi-bin/jstor/gensearch>.

Government Information

(MLA Handbook, 5.6.21)

See Citing Government Documents
[automated fill-in form from Arizona State University Library]

Unpublished
(MLA Handbook, sec. 5.8)

Interview
Payne, Harry C. Personal interview. [or "Telephone interview" or "E-Mail interview" as the case may be.] 22 May 1998.