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Chicago Manual of Style

Documentary Note or Humanities Style

The Chicago Documentary Note, or Humanities Style is favored by many in the humanities and the arts. It is recommended for history research papers.

About Notes

The Documentary Note or Humanities Style uses bibliographic notes rather than text citations. It consists of two parts: a number in the text and a note either at the bottom of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote). Notes are numbered sequentially, beginning with 1., throughout each article, chapter, or paper. The numbers in the text must be in superscript and should follow sentences, clauses, quotations, punctuation marks and closing parentheses. The note should have a normal, full sized number.

Subsequent references to sources already fully cited should be shortened whenever possible.

1. Tom Nairn, Faces of Nationalism: Janis Revisited (London and New York: Verso, 1997), 17.

2. Gilbert Geis and Ivan Bunn, A Trial of Witches: A Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution (London: Routledge, 1997), 17.

3. Nairn, Faces of Nationalism, 176.

Note consisting of several references documenting a single fact should be separated by semi-colons.
 

Multiple citation of a single note should refer to the previous note.

15. See note 4 above.

For an unknown author start the note and bibliographic entry with the title of the work.

Ibid is used in place of the author's name, the title, and as much of the information as is identical to the immediately preceding note. It cannot be used if the preceding note cites more than one work.

6. Tom Nairn, Faces of Nationalism: Janis Revisited (London and New York: Verso, 1997), 17.

7. Ibid., 39 - 43.

For direct quotations from sources without page numbers use subheading, chapter, paragraph number, or other organizational division of the work.

8. David Pilgrim, "The Mammy Caricature," Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia, http://www.ferris.edu/htmls/news/jimcrow/mammies/, under "Commercial Mammies."

Citations taken from secondary sources should be avoided as researchers are expected to examine the works they cite. If the original work is not available, the original and secondary source must be cited.

9. Theodore Sedgwick, Thoughts on the Proposed Annexation of Texas to the United States (New York: D. Fanshaw, 1844), 31, quoted in Lyon Rathbun, "The Debate over Annexing Texas and the Emergence of Manifest Destiny," Rhetoric & Public Affairs 4, no. 3 (Fall 2001): 479.

Notes and Bibliography Examples

Books

Single author note:

1. Tom Nairn, Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited (London: New York: Verso, 1997), 17.

bibliography:

Nairn, Tom. Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited. London: New York: Verso, 1997.
Multiple authors note:

2. Gilbert Geis and Ivan Bunn, A Trial of Witches: A Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution (London: Routledge, 1997), 17.

bibliography:

Geis, Gilbert, and Ivan Bunn. A Trial of Witches: a Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution. London: Routledge, 1997.
Edited Book note:

3. Basil Dmytryshym, ed., Imperial Russia: A Source Book, 1700-1917 (New York: Academic International Press, 1999), 35-41.

bibliography:

Dmytryshyn, Basil, ed. Imperial Russia: A Source Book, 1700-1917. New York: Academic International Press, 1999.
Group or corporate author note:

4. Global Environment Coordination, Facing the Global Environment Challenge (Washington, DC: Global Environment Coordination Division, Environment Dept., The World Bank, 1994), 433.

bibliography:

Global Environment Coordination. Facing the Global Environment Challenge. Washington, DC: Global Environment Coordination Division, Environment Dept., The World Bank, 1994.
Chapter or essay in book note:

5. Craig H. Roell, "The Piano in the American Home," in The Arts and the American Home, 1980-1930, ed. Jessica H. Foy and Karal Ann Marling (Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1994), 194.

bibliography:

Roell, Craig H. "The Piano in the American Home." In The Arts and the American Home, 1890 - 1930, edited by Jessica H. Foy and Karal Ann Marling, 193-204. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1994.
Article from a reference book note:

6. Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. "Washington, George."

For online reference sources, include URL and date of access.

bibliography:

Well-known encyclopedias and dictionaries are usually not listed in the bibliography. For other reference works, cite as a book. (for more information, see CMS )

Articles

Article in a journal (one author) note:

1. Ilya Bodonski, "Caring among the Forgotten," Journal of Social Activism 14, no.3 (1989):117.

bibliography:

Bodonski, Ilya. "Caring among the Forgotten." Journal of Social Activism 14, no.3 (1989): 112-34.
Article in a journal (multiple authors) note:

2. Arthur Carter and Margaret Speigel, "Childhood in Alsace," Journal of Modern History 74, no.4 (2002):741.

bibliography:

Carter, Arthur and Margaret Speigel. "Childhood in Alsace." Journal of Modern History 74, no.4 (2002):738-79.

 

Article in a popular magazine note:

3. Scott Spencer, "Childhood's End," Harper's, May 1979, 16.

bibliography:

Spencer, Scott. "Childhood's End." Harper's, May 1979, 16-19.
Article in a newspaper note:

4. Steven Erlanger, "Pact on Israeli Pullback Hinges on Defining Army's Role," New York Times, sec. A, May 8, 1998.
"Because a newspaper's issue of any given day may include several editions, and items may be moved or eliminated in various editions, page numbers are best omitted. (CMS sec. 17.188)

bibliography:

Newspapers are usually cited in notes, not bibliographies. (CMS sec. 17.191) If a bibliographic entry is included, it would be formatted as follows:

Erlanger, Steve. "Pact on Israeli Pullback Hinges on Defining Army's Role," New York Times, May 8, 1998, sec. A.

Note: Different web browsers break the text in different places of a URL. The URL should begin on the same line as the rest of the citation information, with a break inserted after a slash, if needed.

Article from a full-text database note:

5. Wendy Zellner, "An Insider's Tale Of Enron's Toxic Culture," Business Week, March 31, 2003, 16, http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/form/
academic/s_guidednews.html.

bibliography:

Zellner, Wendy. "An Insider's Tale of Enron's Toxic Culture." Business Week March 31, 2003, 16. http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/form/
academic/s_guidednews.html.
Article from an e-journal collection note:

6. Miguel Edward, "Tribe or Nation? Nation Building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania," World Politics 56, no.3 (2004): 330, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/world_politics/
v056/56.3miguel.html.

bibliography:

Miguel, Edward. "Tribe or Nation? Nation Building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania." World Politics 56, no. 3 (2004): 327-362. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/world_politics/
v056/56.3miguel.html.

Note: if the article has a DOI, use it in place of the page numbers. See Chicago Manual of Style sec. 17.181 for more information and example.

Article from a free web e-journal note:

7. Robert Shrum, "Taxing Clinton's Character," Slate, June 25, 1996, http://slate.msn.com/id/1573/.

bibliography:

Shrum, Robert. "Taxing Clinton's Character." Slate, June 25, 1996. http://slate.msn.com/id/.

Note: if the article has a DOI, use it in place of the page numbers. See Chicago Manual of Style sec. 17.181 for more information and example.

Media

Music Score note:

1. Charles L. Johnson, "Crazy Bone Rag," in Ragtime Jubilee: 42 Piano Gems, 1911-21, ed. David A. Jasen, 41-45 (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1997).

bibliography:

Johnson, Charles L. "Crazy Bone Rag." In Ragtime Jubilee: 42 Piano Gems, 1911-21, edited by David A. Jasen, 41-45. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1997.

"Published musical scores are treated in much the same way as books." (CMS 17.263)

Sound Recording note:

2. Virginia Eskin, Fluffy Ruffle Girls: Women in Ragtime, Northeastern Records NR 9003-CD.

bibliography:

Eskin, Virginia. Fluffy Ruffle Girls: Women in Ragtime. Northeastern Records NR 9003-CD.

Note: List sound recordings under the composer, writer, or other person responsible for the content. The performer may be added after the title. The recording company and the number of the recording are usually enough to identify the recording. (CMS sec. 17.265-268)

Video Recording note:

3. Thelma & Louise, videocassette, directed by Ridley Scott (Culver City, CA : MGM/UA Home Video, 1992).

bibliography:

Thelma & Louise. Directed by Ridley Scott. Culver City, CA: MGM/UA Home Video, 1992. Videocassette.

"Facts of publication for video recordings generally follow that of books, with the addition of the type of medium. Scenes (individually accessible in DVDs) are treated as chapters and cited by title or number. Ancillary materials, such as critical commentary, is cited by author and title." (CMS 17.273)

Television No example provided in Chicago Manual of Style.

Chicago Manual Q & A provides this example for bibliographies:

Friends. Episode no. 153, first broadcast 16 November 2000 by NBC. Directed by David Schwimmer and written by Scott Silveri.

Web/Online

Note: Different web browsers break the text in different places of a URL. The URL should begin on the same line as the rest of the citation information, with a break inserted after a slash, if needed.

Web page note:

1. Norman R. Yetman, "An Introduction to the WPA Slave Narratives," Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938, http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snhome.html.

bibliography:

Yetman, Norman R. "An Introduction to the WPA Slave Narratives." Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snhome.html.
Article from a free web e-journal note:

7. Robert Shrum, "Taxing Clinton's Character," Slate, June 25, 1996, http://slate.msn.com/id/1573/.

bibliography:

Shrum, Robert. "Taxing Clinton's Character." Slate, June 25, 1996. http://slate.msn.com/id/.

Note: if the article has a DOI, use it in place of the page numbers. See Chicago Manual of Style sec. 17.181 for more information and example.

Article from a full-text database note:

5. Wendy Zellner, "An Insider's Tale Of Enron's Toxic Culture," Business Week, March 31, 2003, 16, http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/form/
academic/s_guidednews.html.

bibliography:

Zellner, Wendy. "An Insider's Tale of Enron's Toxic Culture." Business Week March 31, 2003, 16. http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/form/
academic/s_guidednews.html.
Article from an e-journal collection note:

6. Miguel Edward, "Tribe or Nation? Nation Building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania," World Politics 56, no.3 (2004): 330, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/world_politics/
v056/56.3miguel.html.

bibliography:

Miguel, Edward. "Tribe or Nation? Nation Building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania." World Politics 56, no. 3 (2004): 327-362. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/world_politics/
v056/56.3miguel.html.

Note: if the article has a DOI, use it in place of the page numbers. See Chicago Manual of Style sec. 17.181 for more information and example.

Government Information

Congressional Hearings note:

1. House Committee on International Relations, The Threat from International Organized Crime and Global Terrorism: Hearing before the Committee on International Relations , 105th Cong., 1st sess., October 1, 1997, 6-8.

bibliography:

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on International Relations. The Threat from International Organized Crime and Global Terrorism: Hearing before the Committee on International Relations . 105th Cong., 1st sess., October 1, 1997.
Executive Department Documents note:

2. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, The Threat of Russian Organized Crime, by James O. Finckenauer and Yuri A. Voronin (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001), http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS15051.

bibliography:

U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice. The Threat of Russian Organized Crime, by James O. Finckenauer and Yuri A. Voronin. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001. http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS15051.
(CMS 17.317, 17.356)

Unpublished

Interview note:

9. Frederick Rudolph, interview by author, Williamstown, MA, May 15, 2001.

bibliography:

Rudolph, Frederick. Interview by author. Williamstown, MA, May, 15 2001.

"Unpublished interviews are best cited ... in notes, though occasionally appear in bibliographies." (CMS 17.205)